The ?three-point? hydroplane, devised in America during the late 1930s by Adolph and Arno Apel of New Jersey?s Ventnor Boat Works, truly revolutionised speedboat design.
Elegantly simple, the Apel design divided the ?step? portion of the hull into two pontoon-like surfaces, or sponsons, with each on opposite sides of the boat.
The boat?s propeller acted as the ?third point? in the equation. The tunnel between the sponsons trapped air to generate aerodynamic lift, with only the sponsons and propeller in direct contact with the water whilst the boat was at speed.